In the Welsh language system, the word "corgi" translates to "dwarf dog", which is basically what they mean. Most corgis are between 10 and 12 inches tall and weigh between 23 and 28 pounds. If you've ever been around corgis, you'll know that their small stature is part of what makes them so incredibly cute.
The corgi evolved into two distinct breeds, the Pembroke Welsh Corgi and the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, which were not considered separate breeds until the 1930s. Pembrokes tend to be the more popular corgi breeds. Queen Elizabeth II's corgis belong to the Pembroke breed.
The Pembroke Welsh Corgi dates back to the 10th century and is believed to have been brought home from Wales by Vikings and Flemish weavers to be used as sheepdogs. According to Welsh lore, fairies use them to pull their trainers or ride them into battle, and if you look closely, you can still spot fairy marks on their backs. So they are actually magical.
Some Pembroke Welsh Corgis are born with extra-short tails, and due to historical tradition, those usually do not dock their tails for between two and five days (although docking has become illegal in many countries). Cardigan Welsh Corgis, on the other hand, have lush, long tails that make them look more like foxes. They also tend to be more conservative. A common joke among corgi breeders is that if there is a party, the cardigan will be the one who opens the door, while the Pembrokes are the one throwing the pool party in the back.